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Exclusive post : The method of extracting high purity sponge spiculew


       1.Technical field

       The invention relates to a sponge spicule, in particular to a preparation method of a high purity sponge spicule.


       2.Background technology

       Sponge animals belong to porous animal doors, commonly known as sponges, which are the simplest multicellular animals. They have no clear organ structure, but the medium-gel layer is well developed, and the cells are pluripotent. Sponge cells exhibit a high degree of independence in sponges compared to other metazoans. Sponge mainly occupies life, and there is a unique ditch system in the body, which is the main channel for life activities such as feeding, breathing, excretion, and reproduction. Because the adult sponge camp is fixed or attached to life, it does not have the ability to exercise.

       Sponge animals are widely distributed on the earth and have a huge biomass. It is estimated that there are about 15,000 species of lively species, and about 8,500 sponges have been recorded. Except for 150 kinds of freshwater sponges, the rest are marine species (Hooper, 2002). They survive in large numbers in all seas, including deep seas and polar seas. Sponge coatings on most coastal species grow on the surface of hard materials such as rocks, shells, wood in seawater or coral reefs, which reduces the risk of them being stripped and dismantled by the waves. Upright growing sponges are more common in deep seas where water flow is slow, and erect growth prevents them from being covered by large amounts of sediment in the deep ocean. Most sponge species live in shallower waters, and some species, including most of the six-discharge sponges, inhabit the deep ocean. The uncontaminated coastal and tropical coral reefs are the main living areas of the sponge.


Syringes are secreted by splenocytes in a  sponge animal that can enrich and precipitate silicon in a structured  manner or calcium. They are a special medium layer of cells that are  distributed in the middle layer.   

The spicula shape of the sponge is  diverse and is an important basis for the classification and  identification of sponges. The main component of the bone needle is  silica, which accounts for more than 80% of the sponge species, and its  main distribution area is shallow sea.

Since the shape of the sponge spicule  varies with the type, the particle size is consistent, the number is  large, and the composition is stable, and its utilization value is  gradually taken seriously. At present, only the extraction method of  sponge spicule for scientific research is well known to researchers ,  but this method exists less processing capacity and high cost. and the  purity of the sponge spicule is not high, especially the special protein  such as sponge keratin is not completely removed. Therefore, the method  is only suitable for the extraction of the sponge spicule for the  purpose of morphological classification. 

Technical content  

The purpose of the present technology is  to provide a method for preparing a high-purity sponge spicule because  of the above-mentioned deficiencies in the conventional preparation of a  sponge spicule.

This technology including the following step:

1) Washing the sponge and dry it;

2)The dried sponge is crushed, screened, and removing the large particles to get the sponge powder.

3)Adding at least one of acid or  hypochlorite to the sponge powder, stirring, heating to 30-110 ° C and  holding for 0.5-6 h, stopping the precipitation after heating,  collecting the precipitated spicule, and obtaining the crude product of  the spicule after washing ;The most important solid impurity in the  crude product is sponge keratin;

4)The viscous agent having a mass  concentration of 1% to 10% is prepared, and the crude spicule product  obtained in the step 3) is mixed with the viscous agent, and a hydrogen  peroxide solution having a mass concentration of 1% to 30% is added at  the same time. Hydrogen peroxide reacts with sponge keratin in the crude  spicule to produce bubbles on the surface of keratin;

5)The viscous agent containing hydrogen  peroxide and crude spicule is placed in a vacuum container, and the size  of the keratin surface bubble and the escape time are high and low  adjustment by adjusting the degree of vacuum. After stewing, the  impurities and the spicule are gradually layered. After the pressure is  balanced and open the vacuum vessel. the impurities of the upper layer  are removed, and the lower layer of the precipitate is washed to obtain a  high-purity sponge spicule.   


In the step 1), the sponge may be a  cultured sponge, or a natural sponge having a mineral spicule obtained  by means of natural sea area collection, or a sponge remaining from the  active material; which washed can tear the sponge into 0.5 ~ 5.0 cm3  size, rinse with water to remove sediment, impurities, and symbiotic  organisms; the drying can be removed by centrifugation or extrusion to  remove excess water, and then dried or dried.  

In step 2), the sieving may pass through a screen of 15 to 60 mesh.  

In step 3), the acid may be selected from  one of hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid,  etc.; the precipitation may be carried out by natural precipitation for  0.5 to 6 hours or centrifugation, and the centrifugal force of the  centrifugation is <1000 g; Rinse with water for 1 to 4 times.  

In step 4), the viscous agent may be selected from one of glycerin, cellulose, polyacrylic acid and the like.  

The invention adopts a method of co-heat  treatment of the sample with acid or hypochlorite, suspension of keratin  with hydrogen peroxide bubbles, and the like, and significantly  improves the acquisition rate and purity of the sponge spicule.  


Specific mode of implementation  


Sample one:  

The remaining sponge residue was extracted from the sponge active  product, and dried in a fume hood to remove the organic solvent. The  powdery sponge residue was obtained by filtration through a 40-mesh,  80-mesh two-stage sieve. Hydrochloric acid was added to start the  digestion according to the ratio of the sponge residue to the mass ratio  of hydrochloric acid of 1:2, and the digestion vessel was sealed while  heating in a boiling water bath. After 2 hours, the digested spicule was  rinsed twice with water. Remove the spicule crude product. In the crude  product, the content of impurities accounts for about 12% of the dry  weight of the product. A 2% cellulose gel solution was prepared, 100 g  of the crude spicule product was mixed with 50 mL of hydrogen peroxide,  and 1 L of the newly prepared gel solution was quickly added, after  stirred and dispersed, and then placed in a vacuum vessel and evacuated.  After keeping the 10min in a vacuum state, the vacuum was quickly  released, and the impurities floating on the surface were quickly taken  out. The purity of the sponge spicule precipitated at the bottom of the  gel solution can reach 95% to 98%.


Sample two: spicule precipitated at the bottom of the gel solution can reach 95% to 98%.

Use freshly obtained sponge as a material to tear, clean, and remove  impurities and other creatures. The washed sponge is dried and smashed. A  powdered sponge residue was obtained through a 20-mesh and 60-mesh  two-stage sieve. According to the mass volume ratio of sponge powder to  sodium hypochlorite at 1:4, sodium hypochlorite solution was added,  heated to 60 ℃ to 70℃ in the ventilation system, and stirred  continuously during digestion. After 4 h, the heating was stopped, and  it was naturally cooled and precipitated. The supernatant was poured out  and the precipitate was washed 2 to 3 times. The purity of the sponge  spicule obtained at this time is about 82%. Prepare of 6% alginic acid  gel solution 2L, stir 500g of crude sponge spicule and 100mL of hydrogen  peroxide, quickly put into the gel solution, After stir and disperse,  it was placed in a vacuum vessel and evacuated. Keep the vacuum for 20  minutes, the vacuum state was quickly released, and the impurities  floating on the surface were taken out. The purity of the spicule can  reach 98% by microscopic examination.